PCB Fabrication: Simple Guidelines for Creating the Schematic Diagram

Jul - 10 2015 | no comments | By

pcb fabricationThe world has come a long way with technology, especially in terms of the advanced functions of modern electronic devices. This advanced technology can be credited to the presence of the printed circuit board (PCB). The PCB goes through a lot of processes before one can use it on various devices.

The first thing that manufacturers do during the PCB fabrication process is to determine the size of the device within which the PCB would be housed. This step is important because it determines the maximum allowable size that each PCB component could have and the size of the base board as well.

Manufacturers also take the following into consideration:

• Is it necessary to place the PCB onto a slot on the device?
• Is there any other component on the device that could possibly block the PCB? Some examples of this are the battery terminals that provide power to mobile devices or the various card slots on cellphones and digital cameras.

It is only possible to answer these questions by creating a schematic diagram before starting the process of PCB fabrication. People who want to turn this into a hobby can take note of the following guidelines when creating the schematic diagram:

1.Make sure that the diagram provides clear references that are easy to read. Clarity is actually the primary purpose of a schematic diagram and this is achievable by ensuring that the diagram uses clear reference designators for every drawing. Some of the standard reference designators that can be seen in almost every schematic include: BT (stands for Battery or Battery Terminal), PS (Power Supply), and S (Switch).

Many other abbreviations are used on schematic diagrams. The average Joe might view these letters and symbols as some sort of indecipherable alien code, but experienced electricians will have no trouble in deciphering it.

2.Clean up the placement of the text that corresponds to the symbols of the PCB’s component parts. Some hobbyists make use of computer programs for creating schematic diagrams. These programs are great tools that help speed up PCB fabrication.

However, some programs that place the text in a random disarray could make the entire diagram look disorganized. The fabricator’s job is to clean this up by placing the text in a relatively uniform location, such as placing it only to the right side of the symbol that it refers to.

3.Always use upper case letters to denote the names of symbols on the diagram. This is especially true when there is a need to add notes in sentence form to the diagram. In this case, the fabricator would have to use lower case for the regular notes and then write the symbol names in upper case within the same sentence. This process adds to the clarity of the schematic diagram and ensures that PCB fabrication can proceed smoothly.

4.Make sure to label the junctions on the diagram with the correct symbol. This means that the fabricators always have to use dots when denoting that the wires on the junction have to be interconnected.

pcbHobbyists who dabble with PCB fabrication always have to remember that the schematic diagram has to be neat and organized. This is not only beneficial in ensuring that the resulting PCB will not turn out into a sloppy mess; it also makes it easier for the hobbyist to seek (free) help or advice from experts.

Every person who reads the diagram, regardless if he is an expert or not, should be able to read it in one glance. The diagram has to be done in such a way that it will no longer have to be deciphered in detail since all details already speak for themselves.

Author Bio:
High quality PCB fabrication and assembly. We ship PCB Prototypes the Same Day! INSTANT on-line quote and ordering. From prototype to production of single, double, and multilayer Printed Circuit Boards.

Old Wives Tails about Deaths and Funeral

Jun - 18 2015 | no comments | By

funeralThere are many superstitions and old wives tails surrounding death and funerals. These originate from different countries all over the world, and have been observed many, many years back. While rather freaky, scary, or irrational, such superstitions are still believed in some cultures.

Here are some old wives tails about funerals:

1. On Clothing:

If the dead woman is buried in black, then she will come back to haunt her family and relatives.

2. On Mirrors:

If the deceased will be buried inside her own house, then mirrors should be covered. This is because it is believed that whoever sees himself in the mirror will die next.

3. Day of the Funeral Service:

Some cultures do not allow burials to be held on a Monday, because since it is the first day of the week, it may signal the beginning of a series of deaths. Some cultures, on the other hand, do not bury on a Friday because it will supposedly lead to another death within the year.

4. On Weddings:

If someone in the family dies, all its members should not get married within a year – bad luck awaits those who go against this belief.

5. On the Procession:

Do not count the cars following the funeral car on its way to the cemetery because doing so is bad luck. It is also bad luck to see a cortege head on.

6. On Pregnant Women:

Pregnant women should not go to a funeral or attend a wake because it may negatively affect the unborn child. In some cultures though, it’s believed that the soul of the dead may take over that of the unborn child.

7. On the Deceased Who Dies with Eyes Open:

It is believed that if a person dies with his or her eyes open then another will die because the soul of that person will look for someone to share the grave with.

8. Getting Rid of Troubles:

You can ask the dead to take your problems away by whispering all your concerns and worries. It is believed that the dead will take your problems to the afterlife, essentially lightening your burden.

9. Luck with Coins:

Put money into the hands of the dead, and you will have good luck in gambling, and in money in general. Also, you could throw coins at a funeral cortege to boost your luck in gambling.

10. Walking Over the Dead:

Carry young kids across the casket of the deceased before lowering it on the ground so that no one else will die in the family.

11. Most Fatal Bumps:

If the dead will have her wake in her own home, then make sure that the casket will not touch doors and door frames because that would mean that another person within the family will die.

12. A Tough Way to Move:

If there had been successive deaths in the family, the casket of the latest member who died should pass through the window instead to cut-off the chain of deaths in the family.

13. Chicken Justice:

If the person was killed or murdered, then bringing a chick in the wake, and putting it on top of the casket of the deceased, will disturb the conscience of the killer, and will make him confess his misdeeds.


When visiting a wake, you should not go straight home so that the soul of the deceased could not follow you back into your house and haunt you. Some, on the other hand, believe that you will be bringing in bad luck to your house if you go home right after attending a service or wake.

So, which of those superstitions do you believe in? Are you willing to go against them? The answer’s up to you.

Choosing a Topic for Motivational Speeches

Mar - 30 2015 | no comments | By

One of the biggest concerns of motivational speakers is finding a topic for their speech. True, there are a lot of things you can talk about but not everything is qualified to become a speech topic. You have to consider your experiences, your expertise, the interest of your audience and other factors that will affect in choosing a speech topic.

Remember that your speech will have a big impact on the audience. That’s why it is recommended that as a motivational speaker, you are able to choose a good topic that will most benefit the audience for more visit www.motivational-speaker-success.com. Here are some tips and guidelines on how to choose a good topic for a motivational speech.

First, determine what the core message of your speech is. The core message is the main idea that you will present in your speech. All the details and information you present on your speech should support and help establish the core message.

motivational speakersWhen determining your core message you have to consider the following: clarity, passion, knowledge and experience. You should be able to express your core message in a single sentence. This will help you determine if your core message has clarity. Also consider your passion for the message. It should be something that you really believe in and strongly support. Your knowledge and experience on the core message is also important. You should be able to draw on personal experiences and situations to help you deliver the speech and establish pointers and insights to the audience.

Next, consider the impact of your speech on the audience. You must be able to ensure that your speech will provide a 2-way path of communication. It’s not just you who is communicating with the audience. They should be able to respond to your speech and your topic. In order to do this, determine the following things about your audience: demographic of the audience, size of the audience and interest of the audience.

Determine the age group of the audience. Are they teenagers or adults? Are they students, teachers or businessmen? Consider the profession and background of the audience. Their nationality, cultural beliefs and traditions is also important. Consider the size of your audience. Is the audience large enough to fit an auditorium or theater or small enough to fit a classroom? Try to put yourself in the shoes of your audience. What topic do you think will interest them? What topic has the most impact on them? Consider these things about your audience to help you decide which topic will be most effective and essential to the audience.

Aside from that, you should also consider your interest on the topic. If you are very passionate about the topic but your audience doesn’t care then the speech becomes pointless. If your audience is very interested on the topic but you’re not then the speech will become boring and weak. But if you and your audience are passionate and interested in the topic, the speech will become a success.

Once you’re decided on the topic, you have to consider the scope of the speech presentation. Every motivational speaker has a time limit. Ask how much time is allowed for the presentation. You have to fit your speech on that timeframe. But make sure that it will have enough meat to make the speech substantial and strong. It should have enough pointers, insights and situational examples to drive a strong impact to the audience.

Choosing a topic for a motivational speaker may seem a lot of work. But it is worth it. Remember that your topic will make or break your speech so you have to give enough time and effort in choosing a topic that you want.<

10 Helpful Tips in Choosing a Movable Cubicle

Feb - 24 2015 | no comments | By

Do not risk losing thousands of dollars on the wrong deal. You can get the best deals at here www.moveablecubicle.com and also follow these 10 helpful tips.

1. Know your allotted budget.

Buying a movable cubicle will cost you anywhere from $1,200 to $10,000. Retrofitted secondhand cubicles normally have a ceiling price of $2,000, while brand-new ones have a $5,000-$6,000 price range. Movable cubicles with extra features, such as insulation, shelves, and extra door locks can cost up to $10,000. It is a huge expenditure for a personal storage facility, so you have to know how much you are willing to pay.

2. Identify the items you want to store.

MoveablecubicleThe items you want to store will dictate the type of material, door lock, and extra features that you need. For instance, aluminum body which is cheaper yet weaker will suffice if you only need it for excess garden equipment and old junk. On the other hand, you will definitely need an insulated movable cubicle if you are going to store temperature-sensitive items, such as antiques and paintings. Shelves, dividers, and table installations are also needed if you are going to convert it into a record storage container.

3. Check out the available space for the movable cubicle.

You cannot buy a 40-foot cubicle if you only have a 20-foot extra lot. If you are planning to lease a warehouse or parking lot, is the capacity enough to accommodate the cubicle you are planning to buy? You cannot haphazardly decide to make a purchase without thinking about what to do with it afterwards.

4. Inquire about the rules in your neighborhood.

So, you want to open a makeshift store made from cubicle in front of your house, but does the neighborhood rules allow that. Not all communities allow such establishments because some follow strict building codes and rules on uniformity. There are hurricane-prone areas that also do not allow portable houses, so they may require you to make a permanent installation. Are you fine with that?

5. Look for a supplier that also offers customization services.

For convenience, it is better to look for a supplier that can also customize according to your needs. Looking and dealing with a supplier and customization services provider separately will definitely eat up a lot of your time and money. Like what has been aforementioned, know what you need the movable cubicle for before buying, so that you can find the right dealer beforehand.

6. Check the material and built.

Is the material thick enough to secure your valuable items? Is the built guaranteed rain-, moist-, and insect-proof? You have to consider the possible damages your items may get once the cubicle is exposed to harsh weather conditions and other elements. As much as possible, choose something that is leak-free.

7. Ask for the moving arrangements.

Do not be contented with a good price; there should also be a moving arrangement included. How are you going to bring the movable cubicle to your area? Moving is not a simple task because this can cost you thousands of dollars. You have to rent a crane or forklift for the moving. You have to rent a truck or trailer van for the transportation. These are costly expenses.

8. Keep maintenance in mind.

The more features the cubicle has, the more maintenance requirements it entails. There are the perennial concerns, such as cleaning, painting, and abrasive blasting. And then there are also technical maintenance for alarm systems and electric wiring.

9. Look for warranty.

As always, warranty is very important. You can never be too sure about the quality of your purchase, so ask for something that can give you peace of mind even when a storm is raging on your cubicle.

10. Have a long-term plan.

What are you going to do with the cubicle after it serves its purpose as a storage facility? Do you want to rent it out or sell it to a junkyard? The type and state of the cubicle you will buy should be the exact fit for your long-term plan.

Metabolizing Fat Cells – The Best HCG Drops

Feb - 19 2015 | 1 comment | By

Right now there’s a lot of people trying to lose weight and failing to achieve results. You may be one of the millions, trying to get yourself into the right arenas, but are not able to make any gains. If you find yourself chasing results and aren’t able to make something happen, then it’s important to look into something that will help you move forward with the right solutions. With that in mind, consider looking into natural solutions that will help you metabolize fat, and reach the right path for success. In order to do that, you will need to look at perhaps purchasing the best hcg drops. Before you jump into anything, however, consider the elements that help people lose real weight and gain more over time.

Making Moves

hcg diet dropsFirst and foremost, it’s important to understand that you need to actually move around. If you move around, meaning exercise, you will start on the right path. However, you will find that the body is a machine and it will memorize a lot of the movements, causing yourself to end up static instead of dynamic. When that occurs, you will end up losing out and not in a good way. There are some people that are dedicated to going to the gym, and still not make gains. You may not think that you are one of the people that are losing weight, but you are definitely going to want to take a step back and understand this.

The body has a way of memorizing movements, so that when you chase the same exercise goals, you eventually hit a wall. That wall gets hit and you end up with a solution that is quite difficult to manage. That’s where some trainers talk about muscle confusion, by switching up patterns of exercise and choose something new to do. Amidst that, you should also look at improving the body’s use of certain supplements by looking into the best hcg drops.

Metabolic Rate

The body has a metabolism that is driven by several excretions within the body’s cells. You will find that there are hormones, enzymes, and so much more that will help push with reducing the fat in your body and turn it into energy. When you burn the cells and create forward moving progress here, you will end up on the other side with a positive solution. There are certain things that you can help you get more energy through the use of residual fat cells, and that’s where the best hcg drops comes into place.

HCG supplements helps with targeting this solution and give you a fighting chance. If you want to actually elevate your standards and get to a place where you actually see results, then you will definitely get there with the right supplements. Don’t allow yourself to lose sight of this, because it’s working with the body’s natural systems, rather than just brute force.

More Than Dieting and Exercise

There’s nothing wrong with dieting and exercise programs. You should use them, but don’t assume that they are going to be the only thing that you can work within. You want to work with the right elements of these things, and then supplement the deficiencies within your body. If you aren’t getting the right nutrients, you will end up with lackluster results, which is why the best hcg drops can help. It gives you that boost from a natural standpoint, which in turn creates a substantial element overall. You’ll gain major results if you just take your time, look at this solution, and then work on making moves. Test the options, and you’ll lose weight, guaranteed.

Several Ways to Customize Lanyards

Jan - 19 2015 | no comments | By

The one feature of lanyards that could probably trump their convenience and usefulness is probably their accessibility. If you are in the market for a lanyard, chances are you can easily find one nearby if you look at the right places. As more and more people are recognizing the lanyard’s versatility and practicality, the demand for lanyards are going up and if demand is going up, suppliers will scramble to offer them in their stores. This is a win-win situation as they are quite easy to make, thus opening up the market for a range of styles that can cater to the varied tastes of people who need a lanyard.


If you want the convenience of a lanyard but don’t quite appreciate the designs currently on the market, you are in luck. Lanyards are not only easy to make, but also easy to customize. This is a good option for individuals who would like a sense of identity to be displayed in something they probably wear every day, and it is also a wise choice for organizations who would like to promote their brand to increase exposure in their respective target markets.

In the past, lanyard design has been stuck in simple monochromatic palettes – black, white, or shades of gray, with a boring logo or pattern. The selection of fabric or material also tends to be limited. Recently, though, there has been a transformation in lanyard making. Lanyards have been seen to ride on current trends from a dizzying array of colors based on pantone matching, to the range of materials that can be used to create the lanyard.

The traditional lanyard consists of print on a length of polyester band, but now we also see nylon, woven, dye sublimated, tubular, and even cord-type swatches with differing lengths – to be worn around the neck, wrist, or other applicable body parts. One does not need to be overly creative or artistic to produce a unique, quality lanyard as most suppliers offer free customization services. The design elements that go into making a lanyard are simple enough that you can pick through swatches of material for a few minutes, perhaps add a few pins and trinkets for that added personal touch and wait for your lanyard to be made in almost no time at all.

You can also go the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) route and shop around for fabrics and all the bells and whistles you want to go into your lanyard as these items can be easily found in any dollar store or craft supply shop near you. On the other hand, professionals and office workers who wish to use wholesalelanyards in a professional setting tend to be limited in their design choices. As a corporate item, the lanyard has to maintain a certain professional look to help improve the wearer’s image. For this reason, many employees get tired and bored of seeing the same bland lanyard day in, day out.

Depending on the nature of your work, you might be able to dress up your lanyard as well, though admittedly not as extensively as you would have if it was for personal use. For instance, if you work for an organization that deals with school-age children on a regular basis, you could spice up your lanyard with brighter colors and child-friendly designs by adding pins, trinkets or stickers.

These little details will make you feel more in touch with those you are working with and will definitely add a dash of your personality to the otherwise plain and flat lanyard your office has provided. After all, you wear it practically every day, for long periods of time each day and it would only be fitting to put a little of your character into it instead of wearing it looking like everyone else.

Why You Should Consider Homes for Sale Long Island

Jan - 08 2015 | 1 comment | By

Long Island has 4 or 2 counties depending on your perspective. Traditionally there are 4 counties: Nassau, Suffolk, Brooklyn, and Queens. The last two are now widely considered as boroughs of New York.

This article will discuss several reasons why you should consider homes for sale Long Island. The data and arguments presented will only consist of Suffolk and Nassau Counties. For more details, refer to the articles by the same author or from the same website.

Home Values

Homes for sale Long Island can be divided into two categories: brand new and distressed (foreclosure homes). The former has an average selling price of $290,000. The latter has an average selling price of $200,000. This means a difference or foreclosure discount amounting to 31.8%. Take note that foreclosure discounts increase or decrease depending on the location. For example, the average foreclosure discount for the Bronx is around 21% while it goes as high as 61% in Schenectady.


If you only consider Suffolk and Nassau Counties, you have a middle class to upper middle class neighborhood. This means well-kept lawns and relatively safe neighborhoods. The crime index has been at a record low for the past couple of years. There are 656 public schools (125 school districts) as well as 13 hospitals in Nassau and 12 in Suffolk.


Because Long Island is located in the Atlantic, the weather is regarded as somewhere in the middle of humid subtropical and humid continental. This means that the summers are warm and the winters are cold and wet. Average snowfall for the past few years ranged from 25 to 40 inches.


Long Island has a population density of 5,402 per square mile. This figure is very misleading because it includes Queens and Brooklyn. Together, these two have a total population of 4,735,422 whereas Suffolk and Nassau only have a combined population of 2,832,882.


homes for sale Long IslandLong Island is comprised of a predominantly white population (54%). African-Americans rank second with 20%. Asians comprise 12%. This may seem insensitive, but surveys state that Nassau and Suffolk tend to have neighborhoods comprised of specific ethnicities and races. In other words, location-wise, there is racial segregation. However, when it comes to overall interaction, there is no such divide. In fact, the segregation is good for business since some locales have made a business out of the divide (e.g. Little Korea, Little China).


Long Island has several modes of public transportation. Primarily, you have the railway system. The subway also goes to and from Long Island. Major highways are also well-maintained. Public roads have sufficient numbers of buses with various routes all over the metro. You have major airports and a couple of small private airports.


Everybody points to New York as the main hub but Long Island also has a thriving business sector. This includes international brands, cutting edge laboratories, and agriculture (east side).


Religion plays an important role to some buyers. Counting all 4 counties, 22% of the population is comprised of Catholics and while Jews make up 7%. If you count only Nassau and Suffolk, the percentages go up to 52 and 16, respectively.

In Closing

If you are interested in homes for sale Long Island, then conduct your own research. Take a road trip within Long Island. You can even conduct an internet search, contact a broker, or ask a bank or lender to show you their foreclosure listing.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Discount Golf Clubs

Dec - 31 2014 | 1 comment | By


Given that golf is as much a game of strategy as of athleticism, a lot of its aspects require a significant deal of consideration. Anything and everything from how and where to train to which shoes to wear and what kind of equipment to purchase all come with a set of pros and cons that both aspiring and professional golfers need to grapple with.

Surprisingly, whether to purchase/use discounted equipment or not is also a point of contention, especially for beginners who are still on the fence about truly committing to the sport or not (Usually, pro-golfers either have sponsors to provide for them, or have no trouble with making a few sacrifices to fund their commitment to bettering their game.).

Evidently, discount golf clubs come with a distinct set of advantages and disadvantages, some of which will be discussed below:


  • They are cheaper – With basic golf clubs normally costing hundreds of dollars at a pop, discount golf clubs that are priced at a considerably lower rate are definitely appealing. And if the aspiring golfer is patient and resourceful about sniffing out good deals for golfing equipment, there’s a high likelihood that they’ll get a spanking good (if slightly used) set at a budget-friendly price.
  • They don’t require as much commitment from those who simply want to dabble in the sport – Infrequent golfers who are just seeking an alternative form of exercise or who are involved in it for social reasons (as opposed to actually improving their game play) often welcome discount golf clubs since it allows them to play the sport without forking over a small fortune up front. Also, discounted equipment is also great for parents who want their kids to try the sport but are unsure if their children will actually commit to the game.
  • Veteran golfers who prefer older golf club models also have a better chance of finding them in the discount pile since advances in technology have caused earlier prototypes to be discontinued entirely.
  • They’ve already been broken in – This is especially true in the case of used (but still serviceable) golf clubs that are sold at a discount. Sometimes, a few nicks and scratches in the right places can actually improve the performance of a golf club, especially if they were previously handled by a fairly adept golfer.


  • Discount golf clubs don’t usually come with a return or refund policy. This is usually because their prices have already been significantly reduced, or because they are simply used equipment that their previous owner is trying to get rid of.
  • Buyers can come across counterfeits and get ripped off. Discount golf clubs aren’t usually subjected to the same kind of scrutiny as their regularly-priced counterparts so a defective or fake piece of equipment occasionally makes it into the sale pile. Counterfeit golf clubs are often ridiculously unreliable or even dangerous. Club heads can detach mid-swing, shafts can break, and incorrect swing weights can cause poor posture and chronic body pain over time. It is advisable, therefore, for potential buyers to carefully examine the golf clubs to see if they have serial numbers stamped on them and if the words on their packaging are spelled correctly.
  • There are often fewer choices, especially for aspiring golfers with custom equipment requirements. Since discounted golf clubs are often the surplus output of a manufacturing firm, there’s no guarantee that a buyer will find a golf club with the exact length, weight, and angle that they require from the discount pile.
  • Discounted golf clubs are also very unlikely to include the latest updates (such as adjustable weights or club faces). Take note, however, that beginners don’t really need such features and that they are generally intended for pro-level players (who wouldn’t be shopping for their gear in the discount pile anyway).

Ostarine is the New Thing

Dec - 29 2014 | no comments | By


Ostarine is just one of the other various selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) being developed to serve different medical purposes. Also known as enobosarm, GTx-024, or MK-2866, it is a mild SARM wherein its effects are highly dependent on the dosage.


SARMs aid in different medical conditions specifically those involving bone and muscle loss such as sarcopenia (loss of skeletal muscle) and osteoporosis (becoming extremely porous of the bones), and even type II diabetes. What it does is that it targets the androgens in the body specifically those found in the bone and muscle. Those androgens are the ones responsible for the anabolism regulation in the bones and muscles as well as in the regulation of the body fat mass for both men and women.

The body’s production of androgen decreases with age. This then results to an increase in muscle and bone loss such as those conditions aforementioned. Primarily, ostarine was developed for the prevention of the wasting of the muscles and the bones in the body such as sarcopenia. With that it has been proven in various clinical tests or studies that through its use, it can contribute to the increase in one’s lean body mass (LBM) and an increase in muscle. Because of this there are a few brands who even sell it as a dietary supplement.


Aside from serving to different medical purposes, ostarine has also been creating a buzz in the bodybuilding world. Among the other SARMs developed out there and becoming of use to those in the industry, it is considered as the most popular one. This is due to the fact that it provides almost the same effects that the steroid does, which some bodybuilders use but with little to no side effects compared.


Just like the different anabolic steroids available out in the market, ostarine can produce the same outcomes with little to no side effects at all. Even if that is the case, it is not in any way a type of steroid and the outcomes may be visible at a slower pace since as already mentioned, it is mild and its effectiveness is highly dependent on the dosage.


Compared to steroids out there, being a SARM, it only selects or targets the androgens found in the muscle and bones and not those in the other organs of the body. It thus eliminates the chances of having oversized or even ruptured organs.

It also does not make use of methyl alcohol or a methyl group as one of its components or ingredients. This then makes the substance not toxic to the liver. Even so, there is still no assurance that it would not have any effects on one’s blood pressure but if it would, it only has little effects.


The thing with ostarine is that with its capability to be selective on the androgen receptors that it targets, it brings no negative effect on the adrenal glands which primarily are responsible for the production of the natural hormones in the body, thus making it quite safe to be of use of both men and women. Other than that, its androgenic effects or those producing masculine characteristics are kept at a minimum making it better for the use of the women.

Even if this new drug or substance generate a lot of benefits to our body and gives off little to no side effects at all compared to others whose purpose is the same, it must still be kept in mind that all must have a limit. Consultation with experts and further research must always be considered to avoid any undue complications.